What Version of PHP am I Running

phpapache

I was trying to install a debugger for PHP and had trouble mostly because it turned out I had two different versions of PHP running on my machine. One I installed using homebrew and the other … well I don’t know how it got there.

Nevertheless, this is how I found out which one I was using.

  • From the command line
    php -v
    PHP 5.5.12 (cli) (built: May 27 2014 19:40:54)
    
  • From the browserNavigate to a php page with php.info()
    php.info()
    5.4
    
  • Point apache to the right locationEdit apache config
    /etc/apache2/httpd.conf
    
    LoadModule php5_module /usr/local/opt/php55/libexec/apache2/libphp5.so
    

Which Php Config

As an added bonus, I’ll show how to find which php.ini file is loaded.

From the command line you can check which php.ini php_cli is running with:

php -i | grep "Loaded Configuration File"

Resources

Moving GitLab to an EBS Volume

 

gitlab-logo

I’ve really enjoyed using GitLab to manage my git repositories. It was really easy to get started because I used a Bitnami GitLab image for Amazon. The problem is when I created the instance I chose an Instance store over EBS. I don’t have a really good reason why I did but now I need to move my data to its own volume so I can restart my instance with no fear of loosing data.

  1. Check how much space you have
    $ df -h
    /dev/xvda1 9.9G 4.5G 4.9G 48% /
    

    /dev/xvda1 is the root device volume. 10 GB is the default for ephemeral

    I’m at 50% and would like to have more room to grow. However, the real reason is I don’t want to lose my data.

  2. Create and Attach an EBS Volume

    You need to create the volume in the same available zone as the host computer in order to attach it.Also, take note of the device name when you attach it. We’ll need this name when we mount the volume

  3. Format the Volume

    First find which volume is the new one with the list block devices command

    $ lsblk
    
    xvda1 202:1    0    10G  0 disk /
    xvdb  202:16   0     4G  0 disk /mnt
    xvdf  202:80   0   100G  0 disk
    

    xvdf is the new one because it doesn’t have a mount point associated with it. Format the drive:

    $ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/xvdf
    
  4. Create full backup of GitLab

    First stop the application using thebitnamictrl script and move to a safe location:

    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh stop
    $ sudo mv /opt /opt2
    
  5. Mount the volume

    Although the volume has been attached, it hasn’t been mounted yet. You can see this by running df again:

    $ df -h.
    /dev/xvda1 9.9G 4.5G 4.9G 48% /
    

    However the list block devices command can see the volume.

    $ lsblk
    
    xvda1 202:1    0    10G  0 disk /
    xvdb  202:16   0     4G  0 disk /mnt
    xvdf  202:80   0   100G  0 disk
    
    • xvda1 is mounted as the root file system.
    • xbdb is 4 GB mounted as /mnt
    $ sudo mkdir /opt
    $ sudo mount /dev/xvdf /opt
    
  6. Restart Gitlab

    Move data over to new /opt drive and restart:

    $ cp -R /opt2/bitnami /opt
    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ctlscript.sh start
    
  7. Verify the volume and data
    $df -h
    
    /dev/xvda1      9.9G  1.2G  8.3G  12% /
    /dev/xvdf        99G  3.6G   90G   4% /opt
    

    I now have 3.6 GB moved from / to /opt and /opt is mounted to the /dev/xvdf volume

References

Symfony denied Access

Moving my Symfony app to a QA server showed me how rude the server is. I could see the home page right after I copied the project to the new machine with not problem (except for modifying app.config.php and various file permission ownership issues). Nevertheless, the real problem came when I tried navigating to any other route besides the index. Each time I would get a 403 Access denied error.

Apparently the server “understood the request, but is refusing to fulfill it”. Thanks. I especially like how the guideline for 403 errors says

…if the server wishes to make public why the request has not been fulfilled, it SHOULD describe the reason for the refusal in the entity.

That sounds good because I really don’t know why I’m not seeing my page and I would really like to know why the server is refusing to fulfill it. In my case I am given the clear description of “Access denied.” Thanks again.
After much searching and testing I found the solution. The fix was to modify my php.ini and restart the service


; /etc/php5/fpm/php.ini

cgi.fix_pathinfo=1

I’m sure there is a better way to restart this service.

$ ps -eaf | grep php
root      1269     1  0 16:39 ?        00:00:00 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf) 
$ sudo kill 1269
$ ps -eaf | grep php
root      1436     1  6 17:49 ?        00:00:00 php-fpm: master process (/etc/php5/fpm/php-fpm.conf)  

And I’m sure there are more ways for a server to be helpful.

Logging onto EC2

I tend to forget how to log onto EC2. This morning I spun up a few servers with an Ubuntu image on EC2. As soon as I tried to log on, I received a

Permission denied (publickey).

After doing a quick search I remembered I needed to add the username on the instance

ssh -i /path/to/keypair.pem ubuntu@ec2-instancename.compute-1.amazonaws.com

So simple.

Extract Terms from Text

I’ve been playing around with NLP. I wanted to see if I could extract terms from text. With the help of the internet, I found some answers. It boils down to:

Python

The python example looks like this

from topia.termextract import extract

extractor = extract.TermExtractor()

text ="One company that successfully leverages a generic strategy is Costco Wholesale and that generic strategy is low-cost leadership. The company's mission is to provide popular products to customers at the lowest prices the market can offer. One way that Costco has been successful at this is by cutting expenses. Actual Costco stores are literally warehouses full of products. The company saves on many of the cosmetic aspects of typical retail stores. Additionally, most Costco stores are open 10 am to 8:30 pm during the week and closing earlier on the weekends. Less operating time saves money. Additionally, Costco operates on a membership program. This means that someone must be a member to enter the store and purchase the merchandise. One staff member stands at the entrance checking membership cards as members enter and other staff members stand at the exit matching receipts with purchases. This design allows the company to cut down on staffing costs by not needing as many employees wandering the large warehouses."

# Show terms from text
taggedTerms = sorted(extractor(text))

The results from python are:

  • (‘8:30 pm’, 1, 2),
  • (‘Actual Costco stores’, 1, 3),
  • (‘Costco’, 5, 1),
  • (‘Costco stores’, 1, 2),
  • (‘company’, 4, 1),
  • (‘member’, 4, 1),
  • (‘membership cards’, 1, 2),
  • (‘membership program’, 1, 2),
  • (‘staff member’, 1, 2),
  • (‘staff members’, 1, 2),
  • (‘store’, 4, 1)

Yahoo Example

Calling Yahoo with the same text We get

  • costco stores
  • costco wholesale
  • generic strategy
  • cost leadership
  • cosmetic aspects
  • membership cards
  • costco
  • membership program
  • warehouses
  • popular products
  • staff member
  • retail stores
  • staff members
  • receipts
  • lowest prices
  • wholesale
  • money

WordPress

When I posted this post, WordPressed suggested I should tag this post with the following. So there must be a plugin somewhere, could be topia.

  • Costco Wholesale
  • Costco
  • Costco stores
  • generic strategy
  • Actual Costco stores

Amazon Advises me to be Responsible with Tomcat

AwsTomcatI just received an email from Amazon concerning proper Security around Tomcat. Here is part of the message:

You can avoid being vulnerable to attackers by following the below best practices to increase the security of your Tomcat installation:

1. Ensure that the version of Tomcat you are using is up to date and does not have any known or unaddressed security vulnerability. You can find a list of vulnerabilities by version on the Apache Tomcat website at: http://tomcat.apache.org/security.html.

2. If you have enabled administrator or manager user accounts with access to the Tomcat Manager application (managed within the tomcat-users.xml file), ensure they are given appropriately complex passwords and difficult to guess usernames. Additional information regarding configuring access to Tomcat Manager can be found here:

* For Tomcat 6.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/manager-howto.html#Configuring_Manager_Application_Access
* For Tomcat 7.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-7.0-doc/manager-howto.html#Configuring_Manager_Application_Access
* For Tomcat 8.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/manager-howto.html#Configuring_Manager_Application_Access

3. Verify that you are implementing the recommended security guidelines for your Tomcat installation. For some of the later versions, you may find the following guides helpful:

* For Tomcat 6.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/security-manager-howto.html
* For Tomcat 7.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-7.0-doc/security-howto.html
* For Tomcat 8.0, see http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/security-howto.html

4. Subscribe to Apache Tomcat’s mailing list for the latest security updates by visiting: http://tomcat.apache.org/lists.html

Additional assistance and documentation related to AWS security best practices may be found at: http://media.amazonwebservices.com/Whitepaper_Security_Best_Practices_2010.pdf